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    Software name: appdown
    Software type: Microsoft Framwork

    size: 123MB

    Lanuage:Englist

    Software instructions

      "Oh, bosh! Stop it! These are, of course, all lies from Reuter; they did not come from Wolff. Japan is not going to declare war against us; much rather against Russia!"


      In metal working, owing to a more perfect division of labour, and a more intelligent manipulation than in wood-working, there is less combination in machinesin fact, a combination machine for metal work is rarely seen at this day, and never under circumstances where it occasions actual loss. The advantage of combination, as said, can only be in the framing and floor space occupied by the machines, but these considerations, to be estimated by a proper standard, are quite insignificant when compared with other items in the cost of machine operating, such as the attendance, interest on the invested cost of the machine, depreciation of value by wear, repairing, and so on.25


      CHAPTER XXXI. PLANING OR RECIPROCATING MACHINES.

      1. The distance to which power is to be transmitted.54


      A pendulum vibrating in uniform time regardless of distance, but always as its length, if arranged to perform one vibration in a given time, gave a constant measure of length. Thus lineal measure comes from time; cubic or solid measures from lineal measure, and standards of weight from the same source; because when a certain quantity of a substance of any kind could be determined by lineal measurement, and this quantity was weighed, a standard of weight would be reached, provided there was some substance sufficiently uniform, to which reference could be made in different countries. Such a substance is sea or pure water; weighed in vacuo, or with the air at an assumed density, water gives a result constant enough for a standard of [147] weight.

      At the other end of the bridge I was left by my escort, and went on alone; on my left the Meuse, on my right burning houses, above me hissing and whistling shells, that came down in front of me and behind me, with tremendous explosions, throwing the loose earth high into the air.

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      Eighth.Rapping plates, draw plates, and lifting irons for drawing the patterns out of the moulds; fallow and match boards, with other details that are peculiar to patterns, and have no counterparts, neither in names nor uses, outside the foundry.

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      Judged upon theoretical grounds, and leaving out the mechanical conditions of operation, it would at once be conceded that a proper plan would be to move the lightest body; that is, if the tools and their attachments were heavier than the material to be acted upon, then the material should be moved for the cutting action, and vice versa. But in practice there are other conditions to be considered more important than a question of the relative weight of reciprocating parts; and it must be remembered that in solving any problem pertaining to machine action, the conditions of operation are to be considered first and have precedence over problems of strain, arrangement, or even the general principles of construction; that is, the conditions of operating must form a base from which proportions, arrangements, and so on, must be deduced. A standard planing machine, such as is employed for most kinds of work, is arranged with a running platen or carriage upon which the material is fastened and traversed beneath the cutting tools. [130] The uniformity of arrangement and design in machines of this kind in all countries wherever they are made, must lead to the conclusion that there are substantial reasons for employing running platens instead of giving a cutting movement to the tools.

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      "It is as I tell you!"In the case of tools composed partly of iron and partly of steel, steel laid as it is called, the tendency to crack in hardening may be avoided in most cases by hammering the steel edge at a low temperature until it is so expanded that when cooled in hardening it will only contract to a state of rest and correspond to the iron part; the same result may be produced by curving a piece, giving convexity to the steel side before hardening.


      alllittle